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Sam Houston, the governor of Texas, was opposed to secession, declaring, "I am for the Union without any 'if' in the case. When Texas finally seceded, Houston favored independence rather than joining the Confederacy. He was overruled and an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy would soon be required of all Texas public officials. In a standoff at the statehouse, Houston was called three times to take the stand and take the oath. He sat in his seat whittling and refusing to answer to his name.
On March 18, 1861, the long distinguished public career of Sam Houston came to an end. His resignation was accepted and he returned to his home in Huntsville, Texas. A short time later, he would refuse Lincoln's offer of troops to return him to his position as governor.
Also on this date, in Arkansas, a state convention narrowly rejects secession 39-35, but agrees to hold an election later in the summer to allow the voters to decide the matter.